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Early mattresses contained a variety of natural materials, including straw, feathers, or horsehair. In the first half of the 20th century, the typical mattress sold in North America had an internal spring and cotton batting or fibrous filler. Modern mattresses usually contain internal spring cores or materials such as latex, visco-elastic or other elastic polyurethane foams. Other filler components include insulating spacers on the coils, which prevent the upholstery layers from twisting into the inner spring, as well as filling with polyester fiber in the upper layers of the upholstery. In 1899, James Marshall introduced the first separately packed spring pocket mat with springs, which is now widely known as Marshall coils.
In the world, the typical mattress sold today is an innerspring; but There is an increasing interest in foam layers and so-called hybrid layers, which include both internal and high-quality foams, such as viscoelastic or latex, in comfort layers. In Europe, polyurethane foam cores and latex cores have long been popular and constitute a much larger share of mattresses sold. A regular mattress consists of two main sections - the core or “supporting layer” and the upholstery or “comfort layer” - wrapped in a dense fabric is called ticking. Upholstery layers cover the mattress and provide cushioning and comfort. The upholstery layer consists of three parts: an insulator, a middle upholstery and a quilt. Mattresses are usually manufactured according to bedding standards, which depend on the market.
Spring mattresses usually consist only of a spring core, as well as upper and lower upholstery layers.
There are three main types of bed base or bed base: The traditional box spring consists of a rigid frame containing heavy duty springs. This base is often connected to a mattress with an internal spring, since it prolongs the life of the spring block on its core. A solid tree usually has seven or eight support planks located under the cardboard or beaverboard. This base, called differently "bending", "small flexible" or unit with zero deviation, as well as "orthogonal box", provides support similar to the foundation of the platform. Solid wood bases are becoming more common as American mattress makers have switched to extra thick single-sided mattresses. The basis of the lattice is a combination of steel and wood. Usually, Foundation dimensions will be about 1-2 inches shorter than the size of the mattress.
Ticking is a protective fabric cover used to cover mattresses and foundations. As a rule, it is designed to coordinate with the base fabric and comes in a variety of colors and styles. Mattress fabric can be knit, damask or printed woven or inexpensive Nepro- woven Over the past decade, along with the growing popularity of foam beds, elastic knitwear on the top panel of the bed has become the standard look for beds with springs and foam beds. Most ticks are made from polyester yarn. More expensive mattress fabrics may contain a combination of polyester with viscose, cotton, silk, wool or other natural yarn. Until the beginning of the 2000s, beds were usually upholstered in a single fabric. Usually it was a damask tick or, for inexpensive bedding, non-woven material covering all surfaces of the mattress and the base. Modern bedding the accessories are covered with six different fabrics: a better round knit or woven damask on the top panel - the sleeping surface of the bed; matching or contrasting (usually woven) fabric at the edge of the mattress; matching or contrasting [usually woven] fabric on the side panels of the foundation; "Non-slip" woven or non-woven fabric on the surface of the base and the back side of the mattress; and non-woven dust cover on bottom side grounds. Some North American mattress manufacturers are beginning to use furniture upholstery fabrics on the borders of the beds, giving the beds a more European look for home furniture. The word "mattress" comes from the Arabic (maṭraḥ), which means "something abandoned" or "a place where something is thrown" and, therefore, "mat, pillow". During the crusades, the Europeans adopted the Arabic method of sleeping on pillows on the floor, and the word "matheras" in the end is gone to Middle English through Romance languages. The oldest known mattress dates from about 77,000 years ago.
Maintenance and care
Mattresses require a solid foundation, which in itself does not sag - the sagging base, for example, due to weak strips on a wide bed, in turn, will lead to sagging of the mattress. Constant sleep in the same place and position of the body causes excessive wear, and thus rotating or turning mattresses are used to reduce this: double-sided mattresses can be alternately turned over in width (along the long axis) and in length (near the shorter one). axis) or alternately turns and turns; while one-sided mattresses only rotate, which is simpler, but less effective. Rollover / rotation charts vary between materials and manufacturers, but are usually recommended monthly for the first six months, and then every two or three months. Foundations should also rotate, if possible, although less often - it is recommended to rotate the box springs twice a year. Although sagging is undesirable, some level of indentation (about 8 cm (3.1 inches)) is natural if natural materials are used in the comfort layer. The main wear problems that can occur with a mattress are sagging, mold and staining. This is prevented by proper support, rotation and turning, keeping it dry and using a mattress pad or tread. Some signs of a broken or worn mattress include springs that can be felt as you make your way through the upholstery layer, visible permanent sagging or deformation, lumpiness and excessive creaking.
Mattresses easily absorb fluids and stains, especially from night sweats (which leads to a yellow spot), seminal (or Cooper) spots that are darker, menstrual dark red and other bodily fluids in addition to occasional spills. They noticeably stain ticks and seep into the lower layers. In addition to the fact that such stains are unhygienic, difficult to erase and unsightly, they, as a rule, invalidate the warranty. Thus, the mattress protector is offered to protect the mattress; it can be removed and cleaned separately, and replaced if damaged. Mattresses require ventilation to remain dry and prevent mold, so they should not be placed directly on the floor or on a hard surface - slats or a box spring provide space for air flow, while from solid wood or plywood (as in cheap boards for capes ) this does not happen. , Additional ventilation is recommended for natural materials, and in this case it is recommended to leave mattress "naked" after removal of sheets (e.g., the wash). If the mattress becomes wet, for example, when wet cleaning, mold may develop inside the upholstery; This can be avoided with a vacuum cleaner or mild detergent and a slightly damp cloth. Excessive wear of mattresses, such as folding and bending, placing heavy objects in one place, or excessive force on the handles, will also lead to faster wear. Special care should be taken when transporting or storing.
Memory foam: On mattresses with memory effect, a suitable viscoelastic foam is used on top of a more durable polyurethane foam base. Some innerpring mattresses have memory foam in their upholstery. Different sensations and levels of comfort are achieved by changing the thickness, weight, and composition of viscoelastic foams and base foams. Latex mattresses and memory foam create a unique feeling. This type of mattress is good for relieving pressure on painful joints. High-density foam: Like a memory foam mattress, in a foam high density a more compact foam, usually made of polyurethane, is used. This type of foam is made mostly of open cells that are tightly packed together. High-density foam mattresses provide comfort and durability because more dense than traditional foam mattresses. High-density foam mattresses with an internal spring system last even longer and eliminate sagging mattress. Many memory mattresses are more expensive than standard spring mattresses. Memory foam is temperature dependent. In a cool bedroom, a memory mattress will feel stronger than in a warm bedroom. The memory is softened and corresponds to the sleeper, depending on body temperature and body weight. Traditional memory foam forms a hollow on the body, from which the sleeper must emerge when changing sleep. Mattress manufacturers have responded to this problem using a “faster response” foam. They bounce off faster when the sleeper moves. It is also known that foam mattresses are usually "warmer for sleeping" than mattresses with internal springs. Mattress manufacturers have solved this problem with open-cell foams, expanded foam foams, gel filler foams, channel cut cores, mesh foam layers and other technologies to improve the air circulation through the foam layers. Mattresses can also be made from the bladder, for example, from water or air. These dated to antiquity - goatskin bladders filled with water were used in Persia, at least as early as 3600 BC. - and gained increased popularity in the 20th century thanks to improved production.
Latex foam: latex foam in mattresses, as a rule, is a mixture of latex hevei tree brasiliensis and synthetic latex, which is obtained from petrochemical products and other substances and fillers. However, there are natural latex mattresses that do not use polyurethane-based chemicals. Latex foam is produced using processes Talalay or dunlop. Each provides a different feeling. Dunlop is usually stronger foam, Talalay softer. While the Dunlop process produces a denser foam, process Talalay produces lighter, which contains more air. If you weighed each one like latex core, Dunlop foam would have been harder because there was more latex in it. Talalay more expensive, since its production is more resource-intensive. Natural latex foam has a higher latex content than synthetic latex, but “100% natural latex foam” is misleading. All foam mattresses use different weights and densities of flexible polyurethane foams based on petrochemicals, as well as viscoelastic or foamed foams, as well as latex rubber foams. A number of mattress manufacturers have introduced polyurethane foam and viscoelastic foams with part of plant materials. Solid foam mattresses are often combined with the base of the platform.
Inflatable mattresses use one or more air chambers instead of springs to provide support. Quality and price can range from inexpensive, sometimes used for camping, to luxurious luxury beds. Inflatable mattresses designed for typical use in a bedroom cost about the same as mattresses with an internal spring and comparable characteristics. The design of the air bubble varies from a simple plastic bag to an internal partition, several latex chambers (vulcanized rubber) or vinyl with external links made of cotton. Mattresses can have a layer of foam over the airbags for additional cushioning and can be enclosed in a cover. Some of these beds are called soft-walled air beds. “Inflatable beds” with adjustable stiffness for constant use have become popular, especially after the market leader Select Comfort launched a major marketing campaign in 2001. The original inflatable bed was made. Comfortaire in 1981, and was later acquired by Select Comfort. There are several other manufacturers. Some allow you to independently adjust each side of the bed. They are produced in a variety of models: from simple, no-nonsense, which is about 7 inches tall, to high-profile hybrids 15 inches tall, which contain several types of foam, pillow heads and digital pumps with memory for individual pressure. settings. Studies show that beds with adjustable stiffness are better for back pain. Mattresses with adjustable stiffness for medical use have special control mechanisms. In the 1990s, self-adjusting inflatable beds were introduced, which periodically automatically change their pressure or alternately inflate and lower several air chambers. The purpose of these periodic changes is to reduce problems with bedsores (bedsores), although as of 2008 the effectiveness of these methods was still being investigated. Camping inflatable mattresses are available that are filled with foam, which in itself provides little support, but expands when the air valve is opened, allowing air to enter, so the mattress is (almost) inflated by itself. This is especially useful for vacationers who carry their gear, because, unlike conventional inflatable mattresses, no pump is required for inflation. Available brands include Aerobed, Coleman, Therm-a-Rest and others. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission recommends that consumers not allow children to sleep on inflatable mattresses. This is due to reports of deaths, mainly in children under the age of 8 months who have been put to sleep on air. a pillow and either suffocated in a recumbent position on an inflatable mattress, or died of suffocation after falling between the mattress and the bed frame, or the mattress and the adjacent furniture or wall.
Many parameters determine the quality of the mattress. Laboratory test methods have been established for some of these parameters, such as pressure distribution, skin microclimate, hygiene, edge support, and long-term stability. Some of these were developed by Duncan Bane, who works on behalf of the UK Medicines and Health Products Regulatory Authority.
Other parameters, such as hardness, are more specific to the sleeper. In general, hard mattresses are recommended for the stomach and some bedrooms, sleeping soft mattresses are recommended for the side, and medium mattresses are recommended for most bedrooms. Double mattresses are available with a softer and stiffer part, or with adjustable levels of stiffness, to accommodate sleepers with different preferences that share the bed.
In 2003, a randomized controlled trial showed that medium-hardwood mattresses, assessed by the Hs scale from the European Committee for Standardization, were associated with less pain; this study was cited in the clinical guidelines on back pain. In 2015, a systematic review of the research concluded that custom-made medium mattresses are best suited for pain relief and neutral spinal alignment.
Companies often specialize in certain types of mattresses, such as internal springs, latex and inflatable cushions, although since latex and inflatable mattresses have become more popular, they have become more common.
Mattresses, which are basically the same, are often sold under different brand names; the two largest brands, Serta and Simmons, became the owners of the same company after buying out private capital. Founded in the late 1800s, Simmons was bought and sold several times and faced bankruptcy after a serious recession in the bedding industry in the 2000s. The International Sleep Products Association was founded in 1915 and publishes a report on mattress sales in the United States. Another association, the Specialty Sleep Association, represents companies such as Innomax and Boyd Specialty, specializing in latex, waterbeds and inflatable beds. However, Select Comfort, which produces inflatable mattresses (special bed), is a member of ISPA. In 2012, Sealy, founded in 1881, was acquired by Tempur- Pedic , which in 1992 introduced the TEMPUR-Material trademark in the United States. Another large company, Spring Air, went bankrupt in 2009 and was bought by one of its former executives. Comfortaire , founded in 1981, was the first one who specialized in inflatable mattresses. It was later bought Select Comfort. In Spain, Picolin, founded in 1948, is one of the largest manufacturers of mattresses.
Adjustable beds have become a trend and are more compatible with certain types of mattresses, such as latex or memory foam. They are especially popular in Europe, and one business accounted for 25% of beds in Sweden in 2010 and 70% of beds in the Netherlands.
There are four types of mattress innersprings:
Coils Bonnell the oldest and most common. First adapted from the spring seats of the 19th century, they are still widely distributed in mattresses of average price. Springs Bonnell are nodular round steel wire spiral in the shape of an hourglass. When permeated along with the transverse wire : spiraling these coils form the simplest spring block, also known as block Bonnell
The displaced coils are an hourglass-type coil on which sections of the upper and lower convolutions were flattened. When assembling the internal spring block, these flat wire segments are hingedly connected using helical wires. The hinge effect of the device is designed according to the shape of the body. LFK coils are an offset, nodeless coil with a cylindrical or columnar shape. Marshall coils, also known as windings with or in sheaths or pocket springs, are thin, barrel-shaped, knotless coils, individually enclosed in fabric pockets — typically, woven non-woven fabrics. Some manufacturers pre-compress these coils, which makes the mattress more durable and provides
Continuous coils (Leggett & Platt's trademark is “Mira-coil”) are an internal spring configuration in which rows of coils are formed from a single piece of wire. They work in a hinge effect, similar to the effect of displaced coils. Separation of the movements between the sides of the bed. Since the springs are not connected to each other, they work more or less independently: the weight of one spring does not affect the neighbors. More than half of consumers who participated in the survey, decided to buy pocket spring mattresses.
The core of the mattress supports the body of the sleeper. Modern spring mattress rods, often referred to as “internal springs,” consist of steel coil springs, or “turns”.
The connections between the coils help the mattress to maintain its shape. Most coils are connected by connecting wires; The windings in the casing are not connected, but the fabric casing helps to keep the mattress in shape Sensor coils is another factor that determines hardness and support. Coils are measured in quarter steps. The smaller the number, the thicker the spring. As a rule, better winding coils have a diameter of 14.63 mm. Coils with a diameter of 14 to 15.5 (from 1.63 to 1.37 mm) are easier to pressure, while a coil with a diameter of 12.5 (1.94 mm), the thickest, usually available, feels quite solid.
An insulator separates the core of the mattress from the middle upholstery. It is usually made of fiber or mesh and is designed to hold the middle upholstery in place.
The blanket is the top layer of the mattress. Made from lightweight foam or fibers sewn to the bottom of the tick, it provides a soft texture to the surface of the mattress and can be found with varying degrees of hardness.
Middle upholstery consists of all the material between the insulator and the blanket. It is usually made from materials that are designed to provide comfort to the sleeper, including flexible polyurethane foam (which includes crimped foam from eggs), viscoelastic foam, latex foam, felt, polyester fiber, cotton fiber, wool fiber, and other materials. woven pads. In Europe and North America, mattress manufacturers began to use gel-filled foam, soft, hard gels, layered on the foam, and gels in the upper comfort layer of the bed.
Upholstery layers cover the mattress and provide cushioning and comfort. Some manufacturers call the core of the mattress "supporting layer", and the upholstery layer - "comfortable layer". The upholstery layer consists of three parts: an insulator, a middle upholstery and a quilt.
The term "mattress life" refers to the duration during which all types of mattresses can retain their original support and comfort. Mattresses deteriorate over time, and the life of a mattress depends on many factors, in particular, on materials, workmanship, care and rigor of use. Low quality comfort foam layer may deteriorate appreciably in over 1 year in the latex core while quality may last for 20 years or more; Internal springs usually last about 10 years. The comfort layer is almost always the first area that fails, so mattresses are often double-sided in order to extend the service life. A separate cylinder can be used instead of or in addition to a comfort layer that reduces wear and can be replaced without replacing the entire mattress. The service life of most high-class mattresses is from 7 to 10 years, but can last more than 10 years or more depending on the level of care.
Water beds: the water bed is a mattress with water inside instead of metal coils or air. Water beds can be covered with different layers of fiber to achieve the desired user density. Waterbeds are well known for supporting the spine and other parts of the body, just like other types of mattresses. There are several support options that can reach 100% wave mode. When the user does not notice that he was lying on a water bed. In the United States, mattress warranties are usually 10 years or 20 years, sometimes 25 years, although this specifically concerns manufacturing defects and faster than usual wear and tear, rather than expected deterioration over time. In the United States, since 2008, there is a general expectation that mattresses should last about 10 years, and this is the average number of years that Americans keep mattresses, although this varies depending on the age group. This expectation is based on a number of factors, including retail outlets; the expectation that the mattresses will last their warranty period, therefore, 10 years or 20 years, respectively; and comparison with other household items. The mattress replacement cycle is a key revenue and profit factor for the mattress industry — for example, a 5-year replacement cycle doubles sales compared to a 10-year replacement cycle — so the mattress industry has a financial incentive to shorten the replacement cycle. , In particular, the International Association for sleeping products (ISPA) established the Council for the Advancement of sleep (BSC) in 1979 with the stated goal of "shorten the replacement cycle of the mattress", and to encourage people to "invest in the improvement of the bedding." The study, conducted in 2006 by researchers from the University of Oklahoma (funded by BSC), which involved 59 people with poor sleep, who received new mattresses for free to replace existing mattresses 5 years old and older (average age 9.5 years), improvement in sleep was found, especially when existing mattresses were cheap. Subsequent work by some of the same authors with additional statistical analysis confirmed these findings. Subsequently, BSC referred to this study in the ISPA-published news magazine for manufacturers of BedTimes mattresses, to advocate a more frequent replacement cycle, in particular, “consider replacing the mattress every five to seven years”; The recommendation is based mainly on this study.
Traditional measures in the USA
King (193 x 203 cm)
Queen (152 x 203 cm)
Full or (137 x 191 cm)
Single (97 x 191 cm)
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A queen innerspring mattress can cost as little as$200 and as high as in the thousands of dollars depending on the materials.
A twin size innerspring mattress starts at around $299 and goes up from there depending on the quality and style.
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